The organization signaled an emergency when the outbreak was still small, with less than reported cases and only four deaths. Working with the CDC and other health officials from around the world, WHO dispatched more than 60 medical teams to assess conditions on the ground. Four months after declaring an emergency , WHO announced it had successfully contained the disease. The first target was immunization.
In , Gavi and the Vaccine Fund merged. The U.
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Also starting in , the Gates Foundation applied its generous grant-making to malaria research, almost single-handedly reviving the field. At the time, many researchers believed malaria eradication efforts were likely to end in failure.
But many people lost the immunity acquired when malaria maintains a constant presence, and as mosquitoes developed resistance to the pesticide, the disease resurged and the eradication effort collapsed. The freshly funded scientists were loath to speak out. There were a few dissenters. Malaria eradication eventually won support from the highest levels of government. WHO had launched its effort to eliminate the disease in Although the number of cases was dramatically reduced, the campaign missed its deadline and was well over budget. Bill Gates saw an opportunity not just to revive the polio effort, but to advance the whole idea of eradication.
The massive exertion required to eradicate every last vestige of the disease has also arguably drawn WHO staff and attention away from other priorities. WHO relies on voluntary contributions from countries and private donors, including the Gates Foundation, for around 80 percent of its budget. That makes the organization vulnerable to outside pressure, global health experts Devi Sridhar and Lawrence Gostin wrote in a study. Following the financial crisis, WHO was forced to make budget cuts.
As the Ebola crisis began to unfold, WHO resources were disproportionately committed to fighting polio. Money follows money. Daulaire should know. In January , he asked Director-General Chan to declare polio a public health emergency. Five months later, Chan did. In the same period, nearly people in two countries had already been diagnosed with Ebola — and of them had died. WHO was notably slower in its response to Ebola. When SARS hit China in , the organization had swiftly declared an emergency, sparking international efforts before the epidemic slipped beyond control.
But not until Aug. As that undersized response chased a growing outbreak, the cost ballooned. On July 27, news had broken that two American health care workers had contracted the virus in Liberia. Over people had died by then. Then on Aug.
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Soon, there were 18 more cases in two Nigerian cities, Lagos and Port Harcourt, which have a combined population about as large as that of the three previously affected countries together. Nigeria rapidly quashed its local outbreak by identifying every person the infected traveler had met and isolating and testing those with symptoms. But this infrastructure was unique in the region.
There were other measures that might have prevented the spread of Ebola into Nigeria in the first place. When WHO declares a public health emergency, it can compel member states to implement travel restrictions. The emergency declaration on polio, for instance, required travelers from Pakistan to show proof of polio vaccination.
But another post on the Gates website the following day downplayed the crisis. Aylward had previously served as assistant director-general for polio and emergencies, but took the helm of the Ebola effort after the emergency declaration. Instead of pouring in resources, Aylward said, the world responded by imposing overly broad travel bans and isolating the affected region. By Aug. Ebola had become a regular topic at White House press conferences and saturated international news.
But WHO and the CDC, lacking both money and personnel, were still struggling to handle the crisis and to obtain more funds. That same day, Liberian President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf ordered the military to quarantine an entire slum in the capital city of Monrovia in a desperate attempt to gain the upper hand on the outbreak.
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Some new estimates doubled the number of infected people in the city. Fukuda did not respond to a request for comment for this story. Frieden arrived in Liberia on Aug. Just before returning to the U. Less than an hour after arriving back in Atlanta on Sept. Frieden and Elias exchanged emails over the next several days to set up a time to talk on the phone. Elias also offered to reroute a trip through Washington, D. Frieden declined, preferring to speak on the phone sooner. Get the Premium Advantage A Premium Membership means : - You can talk directly to the opposite match - You can get contact details including phone number, mail id and address.
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